University of Alberta researchers have made breakthrough use of 3-D magnetic resonance technology to map the structure of a common fungus that is potentially deadly for individuals with impaired immune function. The work could pave the way for development of an effective vaccine.
The researchers targeted Candida, a pathogen that in its most virulent form has led to more than 70,000 bloodstream infections in North American hospital patients. Health officials estimate that death rate from this bloodstream infection is 40 per cent.
Lead U of A researchers Margaret Johnson and David Bundle as well as collaborators, at the Alberta Glycomics Centre, used nuclear magnetic resonance for a three-dimensional examination of the fungus at an atomic scale that measures less than 100 millionth of a centimetre.
The process, called molecular recognition allowed researchers to examine carbohydrate and antibody molecules related to the fungus to determine what sort of vaccine can best combat Candida.
Johnson described the three-dimensional approach to vaccinology as giving researchers a clear picture of how a vaccine must physically fit against the surface of the fungus.
The researchers used their findings to design test vaccines that produced positive results in containing the fungus. "Our multi-pronged strategy allowed us to observe a new type of molecular recognition," she said.
Johnson added if the private sector chooses to complete the development of a vaccine it could be 10 years before the drug is available.
Johnson and Bundle were assisted by U of A researcher Jonathan Cartmell and colleagues at the National University of Ireland and University of Georgia. The research was published May 25 in the Journal of Biological Chemistry.
Molecular Recognition of Candida albicans (1→2)-β-Mannan Oligosaccharides by a Protective Monoclonal Antibody Reveals the Immunodominance of Internal Saccharide Residues. Margaret A. Johnson, Jonathan Cartmell, Nina E. Weisser, Robert J. Woods, and David R. Bundle. J. Biol. Chem. 2012 287: 18078-18090. First Published on April 5, 2012, doi:10.1074/jbc.M112.355578
University of Alberta